ПРИНЦИПЫ РАБОТЫ С АУТЕНТИЧНЫМ МАТЕРИАЛОМ НА УРОКАХ АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА В СТАРШИХ КЛАССАХ СРЕДНЕЙ ШКОЛЫ

Науменко А. А., студентка факультета иностранных языков, МГПИ им. М. Е. Евсевьева, г. Саранск

УДК 372.881.111.1

ПРИНЦИПЫ РАБОТЫ С АУТЕНТИЧНЫМ МАТЕРИАЛОМ НА УРОКАХ АНГЛИЙСКОГО ЯЗЫКА В СТАРШИХ КЛАССАХ СРЕДНЕЙ ШКОЛЫ

Последнее десятилетие сыграло значимую роль в кардинальном изменении роли и места иностранного языка в современном обществе. Ввиду проведения реформ в системе образования неизмененным направлением, по-прежнему, остается формирование на уроках иностранного языка знаний у учащихся о национально-культурных реалиях страны изучаемого языка [6]. Основным направлением изучения иноязычной культуры является не только знакомство с обычаями и традициями страны изучаемого языка, но также воспитание толерантного отношения к представителям ее культуры и развитие навыков поиска конкретной информации [5, с. 20]. Cогласно М. М. Бахтину, главная задача учителя заключается в формировании межкультурной коммуникативной компетенции, благодаря которой осуществляется «диалог культур» [1]. Инструментом в формировании данной компетенции будут являться аутентичные тексты, содержащие межкультурный компонент.

Используемые в ходе урока аутентичные тексты могут быть представлены в виде журнальных статей, отрывков из газет, литературных произведений, научных работ или учебных пособий. Дж. Хармер отмечает что, если возможно найти аутентичные материалы, с которыми учащиеся могли бы справиться, это было бы полезно, если же это невозможно, то, скорее, следует использовать адаптированные материалы, чем специально сконструированные [7]. В работе с аутентичными текстами учащиеся старших классов средней школы могут столкнуться с такими проблемами, как: неизвестные грамматические конструкции и лексические единицы. Поэтому подобрать аутентичный материал это ещё не означает решить учебную задачу, которая заключается в формировании и развитии аутентичных навыков. Кроме того, важно рационально применить данный материал на уроках так, чтобы изложенная в нем информация была доступна для понимания и усвоения учащимися [3, c. 108]. Таким образом, выбор аутентичного материала с точки зрения содержания текста должен осуществляться [4, с. 10-14]:

— во-первых, в культурологическом аспекте; т. е. в наличии обширного количества страноведческого материала в УМК;

— во-вторых, в ситуативном аспекте; т. е. в правильном подборе материала к конкретному уроку, что помогает вызвать интерес у учащихся к изучаемому предмету;

— в-третьих, в информативном аспекте; т. е. в наличии новой информации, которая будет интересна для учащихся. Информацию необходимо подбирать с учетом возрастных особенностей учащихся и их интересов;

— в-четвертых, в аспекте оформления; т. е. в наличии определенного фона (звуки, иллюстрации, диалоги/монологи и т.п.), сопровождающего аутентичные тексты. Это облегчает понимание коммуникативной задачи материала и устанавливает его связь с реальностью;

— в-пятых, в аспекте учебного задания; т. е. в наличии специальных дополнительных заданий к аутентичным текстам;

— в-шестых, в аспекте национальной ментальности: материал должен исключать такую информацию, которая будет сложна для понимания учащихся из-за большого различия национальных культур;

— в-седьмых, в содержании в УМК большого количества страноведческой информации, элементы которой способствуют повышению значительного интереса и мотивации к изучению иностранного языка.

Практика показывает, что чтение аутентичных текстов на уроках английского языка в старших классах играет значительную роль. В основе мотивации к чтению у учащихся лежит не только получение полезной информации. Благодаря оптимальной организации учебной деятельности над аутентичным материалом и заданиям к текстам, учащиеся старших классов средней школы могут подготовиться к сдаче Единого Государственного Экзамена.

В ходе работы над аутентичными текстами на уроках английского языка учителю необходимо придерживаться определенной последовательности действий.

Комплекс заданий к аутентичным текстам с межкультурным компонентом, который можно использовать на уроках английского языка в старших классов средней школы может быть представлен следующим образом. Базовым УМК является “Enjoy English” М. З. Биболетовой для 11 класса [2]. Все задания направлены на развитие лингвострановедческих знаний и межкультурной коммуникации учащихся. Данный материал можно использовать как на начальном этапе урока в качестве разминки/зарядки, при объяснении нового или закреплении изученного материалов, так и для подготовки к Единому Государственному экзамену (форма предложенных заданий идентична форме заданий тестов ЕГЭ).

Exercise 1. Look through the texts and match the headings to the paragraphs.

Global trends

The “Japanese” way of living

A simple but aesthetic life

Looking for a different lifestyle

Much work and bad health

Bar culture, café and conversation

Family life

1______________________________

A common feature of the leading countries of the world today is tough competition. People in the race have often sacrificed family or community values and have become more and more individualistic in order to compete. But Japan has got a different story. The importance of family still predominates over individualistic gains. People adhere to that genuine humbleness that has become the trademark of Japanese culture. The rapid pace that life takes in this culture is somehow hidden within the folds of an orderly lifestyle. A deep sense of responsibility towards maintaining social values and tradition even among the younger generation makes Japan stand tall and unmatched in this area. Competition here is considered healthy and mutual respect is a top priority.

2______________________________

From night clubs to Karaoke zones, to peculiar fashion trends, the young Japanese have learned how to come to terms with the global way of enjoying oneself. However, the distinct strict attitude of their culture prevents them from taking this too far. Young people are able to enjoy themselves without getting crazy. But they also feel a constant struggle to keep up with peer pressure and urban expectations, and this has had a negative effect on Japanese people. Indeed, Japan has one of the highest suicide rates in the world.

On the brighter side, Japanese people today are more leisurely than they were 20 — 30 years ago. Travelling around the globe and within the country has become popular. In fact, you will notice a lot of Japanese tourists these days in the major tourist destinations of the world.

Some current popular activities the Japanese enjoy include mountaineering, hiking, fishing, golf and football. Create funny and sometimes surprisingly useful gadgets is another Japanese distinction.

3______________________________

To the Italian, family and friends are one of the important parts of life. They cannot think of spending an entire day without enquiring about their parents and children, or passing a weekend without a family lunch or dinner. So it is not a surprise that Italians living outside their country miss their families a lot. These days a major part of the Italian population is over the age of sixty. This continues to add to the slowness of life, and perhaps enforce the strong family bonding Italians are so proud of.

4______________________________

The lifeline for the Italians is coffee. Their day starts and ends with coffee. For the Italian, a cappuccino or an espresso after every meal is a must. Italians love to spend time talking with friends over a cappuccino. Topics range from family and football to religion and politics.

5______________________________

Italians believe in living life to the fullest. This doesn’t always mean big since as the world’s most famous automobile makers, they love getting around in small well-designed cars. And they don’t necessarily care about parking their car in a proper place or even keeping it clean. However, Italians are great patrons of the art, and their homes, which reflect their artistic sense and warmth, are important to them.

Their artistic sense is also reflected in their fashion. Italian fashion is world renowned. As one of the most prominent fashion capitals of the world, Milan, has been consistently adding to fashion trends adopted across the globe. The streets of this city reflect the height of fashion where people experiment with different cuts, colour and texture, even in everyday clothing.

6______________________________

The lifestyle of the American family has undergone rapid changes in order to conform to the fast pace of changing trends. In the average American family typically the father spends around 9–10 hours a day at work while the mother spends around 7 – 8 hours a day at work outside the home. Add to it another couple of hours for the mother who often does the majority of the daily housework and the care of the children. The demands of this lifestyle have resulted in people becoming less concerned about maintaining their health. The average American man spends more hours watching television at home than he does exercising or socialising. For the children, being out of touch with their parents for most of the day means they also watch a lot of television and play video games. With this fast-paced lifestyle also comes fast food, contributing to Americans’ already negative health habits.

7______________________________

To avoid this stressful lifestyle many Americans are opting for alternative professions that have less work pressure. The search often lands them in foreign countries ranging from Spain to the Philippines. These days some Americans can be found appreciating the lifestyle of various foreign countries rather than their own.

Exercise 2. Fill in the gaps in the text with the appropriate sentences and parts of the sentences.

Oxford and Cambridge are the most prestigious universities in the English-speaking world. You never say Cambridge and Oxford; Oxford always comes first. A__________________________.

To get the Degree of Bachelor of Arts (B.A.) students have to study for three years. The students wear a special uniform daily and full academic dress at the examinations. According to the long established tradition Latin B______________.

Oxford and Cambridge universities C____________________. Each college has its own name and its coats of arms. On the territory there is usually a chapel, a dining hall, a library, rooms for undergraduates, fellows and the master, and also rooms for teaching.

Oxford is one of the oldest universities in Europe. It is situated at a distance of 100 km from London. D______________________________. It dates in chronicles from 911 AD. Most colleges are made of grey stone. They have stood there for many centuries. E______________________. Now there are 27 colleges for men, 5 for women and another five which have both ones. All the students at Oxford talk in a very superior way known as the Oxford accent, which is a bit like the BBC accent.

Cambridge is situated at a distance of seventy miles from London. It is one of the most beautiful towns in England and looks more like a country town. The Cambridge University started during the 13th century (1284). It has more than twenty nine colleges. A college is a group of buildings which form a square with a lawn in the centre. The colleges line the bank of the river Cam. They have beautiful college gardens with green lawns and lines of tall trees.

The oldest college in Cambridge is Peterhouse, which was founded in 1284. The most famous is probably King’s college (founded in 1441) F____________________________.

Since the year of 1970 most colleges of Cambridge are mixed. A lot of famous people studied at Cambridge. They are Sir Isaac Newton, Oliver Cromwell, John Milton and Sir Charles Darwin. In Trinity College, which is a very famous, there is a statue of Sir Isaac Newton, the greatest scientist in the world.

Sport is a part of student’s life at both universities.  There is a great rivalry between the universities and they play all sorts of games between each other like cricket and rugger (rugby football). Also they compete at punting and rowing, which are the most popular sports. The Oxford team wears dark blue uniform and the Cambridge team wear light blue one.

  1. consist of a number of colleges
  2. Oxford is an aristocratic university.
  3. It is the second largest one in Britain after London University.
  4. where it is not allowed or should be kept on a lead.
  5. because of its magnificent chapel and English fifteen-century architecture.
  6. They are often called Oxbridge.
  7. is used at public degree ceremony.
A B C D E F

Exercise 3. Read the text.

Cinema and theatre in Great Britain

From about 1930 until very recent times the cinema enjoyed great popularity in Britain. The first cinemas were the most impressive buildings in the street of many towns. Later, the rapid spread of television brought a great change. The number of cinema -goers dropped and, as a result, 1,500 cinemas were closed. Many of the films were mostly imported from America. Some films were shot in Britain and often directed by British directors, but with American money. The British cinematography was not able to provide the cinema houses with films of its own production.

It was only during World War II and after that the British producers began to make their own films. In this way they voiced their protest against Britain’s dependence on American cinema. A glimpse of hope was seen in such productions as «Hamlet», produced by Laurence Oliver, «Great Expectations» and «Oliver Twist» by U. Lynn, and more recently in «Room at the Top», «Look Back in Anger», a number of TV plays, serials and documentaries.

But still the great majority of films dominating the British screen are Hollywood production. Among them are American-made thrillers, westerners, spy-films, horror-films, which have their influence on the British youth. The cinema monopolies are little concerned with the ill-effects of such films as long as they bring in profits. Commercial art which can be cheaply mass produced leaves little, if any, room for real art. This gives an impulse, however, to the young talented film writers, actors and producers to unite their efforts in producing really good films.

Theatre is a popular hobby in Great Britain as well The main theatrical city of the country is London There are more than 50 different theatres in the capital and about 200 professional companies World-famous for its concerts is Albert Hall in London. It performs from mid-July till mud-September, involving a great variety of orchestras and conductors, both British and foreign. Among the first-class orchestras are BBC Symphony, London Symphony, New Philharmonic and others. Choral singing is supposed to be a specialty of the British and there are successful choral societies in many cities.

There are many amateur orchestras, choirs and opera groups even in small county towns. The best players are chosen to play in the county youth orchestras, and a few of the very best may be picked for the National Youth Orchestra. This orchestra is trained by distinguished conductors. It plays in the Royal Festival Hall and in other big concert halls. British people are fond of art and visit international and national music and drama festivals held in their country.

3.1 Choose the correct answer.

  1. According to the author the number of cinema-goers dropped owing to…
  • all the cinemas were closed.
  • British cinematography was unable to provide films of its own production due to lack of funds.
  • cinemas were the most impressive buildings but they sharply lost popularity among the local population.
  • many films were shot in America because of this the directors were forced to stop showing these films in the UK.
  1. The protest against Britain’s dependence on America cinema was…
  • that the British filmmakers began to make films themselves without the support of American money.
  • that the British directors had enough money to create their own films.
  • in different political views between America and Britain after the World War II.
  • in proving British independence in making films.
  1. The great majority of films dominating the British screen are…
  • American-made thrillers, westerners, spy-films, horror-films.
  • British production.
  • British production with the help of American filmmakers.
  • Hollywood
  1. Which of the following statements is TRUE, according to the text?
  • Commercial art is too expensive for novice producers and gives them little opportunity to create new film projects.
  • Cinemas of Hollywood production have a negative impact on the British youth.
  • Film monopolies are very concerned about the negative effects of films on young people, while these films are profitable.
  • British cinema does not have enough profit to sell new films because of this many actors live in poverty without having a shortage of jobs.
  1. Author claims that London is famous for…
  • films production.
  • a great variety of orchestras and conductors.
  • choral singing.
  1. National Youth Orchestra plays in…
  • Albert Hall.
  • London
  • New Philharmonic.
  • Royal Festival Hall.
  1. The British people’s attitude towards the Art may be described as:

Exercise 4. Read the text and fill in the gaps with the words below.

New Year in Great Britain

In Wales, the back door releases the Old Year A_____ the first stroke of midnight: it is then locked «to B ______the luck ___», and at the last stroke the New-Year is let in at the front.

It is commonly believed that New Year’s Day is less important in England than Christmas. It is true in the southern and eastern parts of the country. C_______, even there, the welcoming of the New Year is growing in popularity, particularly among younger people who prefer to spend Christmas with kin, but New Year with friends. New Year’s parties go all night D____.

The most famous places of festivities are Piccadilly Circus and Trafalgar Square in London E________crowds of people greet the New Year with the linked-arm singing of «Old Lang Syne», kissing total strangers, blowing whistles and automobile horns and shooting firecrackers.

In Scotland, New Years celebration is the greatest festival of the year, where it even has a special name, Hogmanay. Nobody, however, can successfully F______where this word comes from. After midnight people visit their friends. They carry cakes and spiced ale to wish their hosts a good year.

The first visitor, must bring a special present — a piece of coal — to wish good luck and warmth to the house. This is an old Scottish custom. The first footer may also bring a G_______of white bread and a bottle of whisky, On entering he must place the coal on the fire, put the loaf on the table, and pour a glass for the head of the house, all normally without speaking or being spoken to until he wishes everyone «A Happy New Year». He may also carry a silver coin to wish wealth.

A         1) on                    2) at                3) with                 4) to

B         1) touch up          2) hold out      3) keep in            4) stand by

C         1) However         2) Although    3) Therefore        4) Moreover

D         1) away               2) on                3) in                    4) through

E         1) that                  2) where         3) there                4) which

F         1) explain            2) say              3) tell                   4) speak

G        1) piece               2) bit               3) slice                 4) loaf

Таким образом, вышесказанное позволяет сделать вывод, что организация учебных занятий на основе чтения аутентичных текстов с межкультурным компонентом развивает у учащихся языковые, социокультурные и культурно-прагматические знания. Учителю немаловажно выбрать правильную стратегию в работе с аутентичным материалом на уроках английского языка, посредством которого у учащихся повышается мотивация к изучению иностранного языка, улучшается качество знаний, активизируются речевая и мыслительная деятельности. Но основной целью чтения аутентичных текстов в старших классах является закрепление лексического и грамматического материалов, которые играют важную роль в выполнении итоговой экзаменационной работы.

 

Список использованных источников

 1. Бахтин, М. М. Ответ на вопрос редакции «Нового мира» / М. М. Бахтин // Эстетика словесного творчества. – М. : Искусство, 1986. – 424 с.

2. Биболетова, М. З. Английский язык. Enjoy English : учеб. для 11 кл. общеобраз. учрежд. / М. З. Биболетова, Е. Е. Бабушис, Н. Д. Снежко. – 2-е изд. испр. – Обнинск : Титул, 2014. – 200 с.

3. Винтайкина, Р. В. Лингвистика текста и обучение ознакомительному чтению в средней школе / Р. В. Винтайкина // Иностранные языки в школе. – 1989. – № 4. – С. 108–109.

4. Носонович, Е. В. Методическая аутентичность учебного текста / Е. В. Носонович. – М. : РГБ, 2011. – 256 с.

5. Саланович, Н. А. Обучение чтению аутентичных текстов лингвострановедческого содержания / Н. А. Саланович // Иностранные языки в школе. – 1999. – № 1. – С. 18–21.

6. Федеральные государственные образовательные стандарты [Электронный ресурс]. – Режим доступа : минобрнауки.рф/документы/543. – Загл. с экрана.

7. Harmer, J. How to teach English / J. Harmer // 6th impression. – L. : Pearson, 2010. – 290 p.